Access Point :
An access point is a device, such as a wireless router, that allows wireless devices to connect to a network. Most access points have built-in routers, while others must be connected to a router in order to provide network access. In either case, access points are typically hardwired to other devices, such as network switches or broadband modems.
Access points can be found in many places, including houses, businesses, and public locations. In most houses, the access point is a wireless router, which is connected to a DSL or cable modem. However, some modems may include wireless capabilities, making the modem itself the access point. Large businesses often provide several access points, which allows employees to wirelessly connect to a central network from a wide range of locations. Public access points can be found in stores, coffee shops, restaurants, libraries, and other locations. Some cities provide public access points in the form of wireless transmitters that are connected to streetlights, signs, and other public objects.
While access points typically provide wireless access to the Internet, some are intended only to provide access to a closed network. For example, a business may provide secure access points to its employees so they can wirelessly access files from a network server. Also, most access points provide Wi-Fi access, but it is possible for an access point to refer to a Bluetooth device or other type of wireless connection. However, the purpose of most access points is to provide Internet access to connected users.
The term "access point" is often used synonymously with base station, though base stations are technically only Wi-Fi devices. It may also be abbreviated AP or WAP (for wireless access point). However, WAP is not as commonly used as AP since WAP is the standard acronym for Wireless Access Protocol.
Active-matrix technology is used in high-quality flat-panel displays, such as laptop screens and thin computer monitors. The images on active matrix screens are created by laying diodes, or small semiconductors, over a grid of ultra-small wires. When a current passes through the diodes, they light up in different colors, depending on the strength of the current. Thousands of these diodes next to each other form an image on the screen.
To keep the diodes in an on or off state, active-matrix displays use transistors, which are not found in the lower-quality passive-matrix displays. The transistors help make the active-matrix displays brighter and give them more contrast than passive-matrix displays.
Ad Hoc Network :
"Ad Hoc" is actually a Latin phrase that means "for this purpose." It is often used to describe solutions that are developed on-the-fly for a specific purpose. In computer networking, an ad hoc network refers to a network connection established for a single session and does not require a router or a wireless base station.
For example, if you need to transfer a file to your friend's laptop, you might create an ad hoc network between your computer and his laptop to transfer the file. This may be done using an Ethernet crossover cable, or the computers' wireless cards to communicate with each other. If you need to share files with more than one computer, you could set up a mutli-hop ad hoc network, which can transfer data over multiple nodes.
Basically, an ad hoc network is a temporary network connection created for a specific purpose (such as transferring data from one computer to another). If the network is set up for a longer period of time, it is just a plain old local area network (LAN).
(Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line)
Stands for "Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line." ADSL is a type of DSL, which is a method of transferring data over copper telephone lines. While symmetrical DSL (SDSL) uploads and downloads data at the same speed, ADSL has different maximum data transfer rates for uploading and downloading data.
For example, an ADSL connection may allow download rates of 1.5Mbps, while upload speeds may only reach 256Kbps. Since most users download much more data than they upload, this difference usually does not make a noticeable impact on Internet access speeds. However, for Web servers or other computers that send a lot of data upstream, ADSL would be an inefficient choice.
(Application Program Interface)
Stands for "Application Program Interface," though it is sometimes referred to as an "Application Programming Interface." An API is a set of commands, functions, and protocols which programmers can use when building software for a specific operating system. The API allows programmers to use predefined functions to interact with the operating system, instead of writing them from scratch.
All computer operating systems, such as Windows, Unix, and the Mac OS, provide an application program interface for programmers. APIs are also used by video game consoles and other hardware devices that can run software programs. While the API makes the programmer's job easier, it also benefits the end user, since it ensures all programs using the same API will have a similar user interface.
An archive is a single file that contains multiple files and/or folders. Archives may be created by several different file archiving utilities and can be saved in one of several different formats. They may also be compressed to reduce the file size or encrypted for security purposes. The term "archive" can also be used as a verb, which refers to the process of creating an archive.
Archives are useful for consolidating multiple files and folders into a single file. They are commonly used for backing up data and transferring multiple files between users. For example, a Web developer may save all the HTML, CSS, and image files for a website in a single archive to share with graphic designer. By consolidating all the files in an archive, the developer only needs to send one file to the designer. If the archive is compressed, it will also take less time to transfer online.
In order to open the files in an archive, they must first be extracted from the archive. Compressed archives must also be decompressed before the files can be extracted. Both of these processes can be performed using a compatible file decompression utility, such as WinZip, StuffIt Expander, WinRAR, or 7-Zip. These programs support multiple standard archive formats, as well their own proprietary compressed file types.
Some common archive formats include Zip files, StuffIt archives, and TAR files. Zip files use a standard archive format that is supported by several file decompression programs. StuffIt archives are saved in a proprietary format that can only be opened using StuffIt Expander on Macintosh and Windows systems. TAR files are uncompressed archives that are typically created on Unix systems.
File Extensions: .ZIP, .ZIPX .SIT, .SITX, .TAR, .TGZ, .RAR
(American Standard Code for Information Interchange)
Stands for "American Standard Code for Information Interchange." ASCII is the universal standard for the numerical codes computers use to represent all upper and lower-case letters, numbers, and puctuation. Without ASCII, each type of computer would use a different way of representing letters and numbers, causing major chaos for computer programmers (allowing them even less sleep than they already get).
ASCII makes is possible for text to be represented the same way on a Dell Dimension in Minneapolis, Minnesota as it is on an Apple Power Mac in Paris, France. There are 128 standard ASCII codes, each of which can be represented by a 7 digit binary number (because 2^7 = 128).